The Drug Enforcement Administration regarded Anthony L. Armour as an “excellent” particular agent on the entrance strains of the nation’s opioid epidemic. However in 2019, a routine drug check derailed his profession.

Months earlier, Mr. Armour stated he had begun utilizing CBD oil, which is derived from hemp, to deal with power ache, deeming it safer than the extremely addictive painkillers that had been the main focus of his legal investigations.

His failed drug check led the federal government to fireside him, setting off a prolonged courtroom battle that underscored the rising pains of a booming and largely unregulated CBD trade.

Final week, Mr. Armour received his case. In a uncommon transfer, the Division of Justice agreed to rehire him as a particular agent, present some again pay, cowl his authorized bills and restore his eligibility for a pension.

“I’m excited to be getting again to work at D.E.A.,” stated Mr. Armour, 49, who joined the company in 2004 and is about to return to its Houston workplace on Monday. “I hope to complete my profession at D.E.A. by serving to its mission in taking harmful medicine like fentanyl off the streets.”

The authorized settlement between Mr. Armour and the Division of Justice, which has not been beforehand reported, comes amid a broad re-examination of the hazards and therapeutic worth of hashish.

Newly disclosed paperwork confirmed that the Biden administration is reconsidering the authorized and regulatory standing of hashish following an evaluation by federal scientists who concluded that the plant’s medicinal potential justifies eradicating it from probably the most restrictive class of medication.

Hashish use in the US has soared in recent times as 24 states legalized leisure marijuana and 38 sanctioned its medicinal use.

A significant milestone within the more and more permissive panorama got here in 2018, when Congress legalized CBD as a part of the Farm Invoice. It allowed CBD merchandise that include lower than 0.3 p.c THC, the psychoactive part of marijuana.

Consultants on the World Well being Group issued a report in June 2018 calling CBD a usually secure and promising drugs.

Lately, CBD has change into a multibillion-dollar trade catering to folks with power ache, insomnia, dependancy and anxiousness. It’s infused in tinctures taken orally, gummies, glowing sodas, bathtub salts, therapeutic massage oil, espresso, make-up and even canine treats.

As its attraction exploded, thorny points arose. After CBD grew to become authorized below federal legislation, it remained illegal in a number of states, which landed CBD entrepreneurs in authorized bother. In 2020, the Meals and Drug Administration discovered that a number of merchandise bought as CBD contained more than trace amounts of THC. By then, the unreliability of CBD product labels had already become clear to some shoppers, as they started failing drug assessments.

Amongst them was Mr. Armour, who has grappled with power ache for years. He has stated he was injured as a school soccer participant and later at work, together with in a site visitors accident throughout a surveillance operation that left him with an acute sprain within the neck and extreme again ache.

After the crash in 2016, Mr. Armour stated he thought of taking legally prescribed opioids, however opted to not as a result of he had seen the hazards of opioid dependancy up shut. In early 2019, he ordered a vaporizer and CBD tinctures — that are taken orally — from an internet retailer he thought of respected. The merchandise eased his ache, Mr. Armour stated, and he believed he had no motive to suppose he was taking a danger.

Below D.E.A. coverage, staff discovered to have used unlawful medicine are fired “absent excessive circumstances.”

After a routine drug check got here again optimistic for marijuana a couple of months later, he advised supervisors that he had been utilizing CBD and turned the merchandise over to investigators. Lab assessments confirmed that two contained lower than 0.3 p.c of THC, however one had a barely elevated stage: 0.35 p.c, which was throughout the check’s 0.08 p.c margin of error, in response to Mr. Armour’s lawsuit.

A short while later, a D.E.A. official in Houston cautioned staff to keep away from of CBD merchandise, warning that drug assessments couldn’t reliably distinguish between CBD and common marijuana, information present.

“Please don’t create issues for your self through the use of this snake oil,” the official, Will R. Glaspy, wrote in a memo emailed to employees members.

In 2020, Mr. Armour was fired.

In a lawsuit that asserted wrongful termination, Matthew C. Zorn, Mr. Armour’s lawyer, argued that his shopper had not deliberately used marijuana, that the D.E.A. had no specific guidelines concerning CBD use by staff and that termination had been an unduly harsh punishment.

“Anthony’s case reminds us that legal guidelines regarding hashish don’t at all times make sense and might be counterproductive,” Mr. Zorn stated.

In a authorized submitting, the Division of Justice acknowledged that there was no proof that Mr. Armour had deliberately damaged the legislation. However the authorities argued that Mr. Armour ought to have identified that CBD use might lead to a optimistic drug check.

“Mr. Armour was an impressive D.E.A. agent when he took an opportunity in 2019,” the Justice Division wrote in a authorized transient submitted to a federal appeals courtroom final 12 months. “This was an unlucky ending to a prolonged and productive profession in federal legislation enforcement. However D.E.A. is charged with imposing our nation’s drug legal guidelines, and federal staff are chargeable for what they put of their our bodies.”

Final September, Mr. Armour testified earlier than Congress as lawmakers thought of a invoice that might have loosened hashish use guidelines for federal staff. He argued that the federal authorities’s strict enforcement of hashish guidelines was shortsighted.

“No person ought to have to decide on between struggling ache and serving our nation,” he said.

Earlier this month, the company agreed to reinstate Mr. Armour and pay him $470,000 in again pay and authorized prices, in response to a replica of the settlement, which The New York Occasions obtained from the Nationwide Group for the Reform of Marijuana Legal guidelines, a gaggle that favors broader legalization.

It isn’t clear what led the federal government to reverse course. A spokeswoman for the D.E.A. declined to touch upon the case. An company bulletin issued to staff in 2021 doesn’t outright prohibit the usage of CBD merchandise. But it surely warns that the truth that they are often purchased legally “shouldn’t be a protection in opposition to” a optimistic drug check.

For his half, Mr. Armour says he continues to see worth in utilizing CBD for ache administration. As soon as he returns to work, he stated, “I’m going to seek the advice of a medical skilled about my choices.”

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