The Federal Aviation Administration mentioned on Friday that it was taking vital steps to mitigate the dangers posed by exhaustion amongst air site visitors controllers, after a collection of shut calls final yr raised alarms in regards to the security of the U.S. air journey system.

Mike Whitaker, the F.A.A. administrator, issued a directive growing the variety of hours that controllers are required to relaxation between shifts from 9 hours to 10, and 12 hours earlier than a midnight shift. He mentioned he hoped to place the adjustments in place inside 90 days.

The announcement got here because the air security regulator launched a 114-page report from an skilled panel that assessed the dangers related to air site visitors controller fatigue.

“We’re dedicated to a sustained effort to handle controller fatigue and guarantee our airspace is the most secure on the planet,” Mr. Whitaker mentioned in a press release.

The F.A.A. established the panel in December within the wake of a New York Times investigation that exposed how a nationwide scarcity of air site visitors controllers had resulted in an exhausted and demoralized work pressure that was more and more susceptible to creating harmful errors. Many air site visitors controllers have been working round the clock schedules that had pushed them to the psychological and bodily brink.

The Instances reported that nearly the entire nation’s air site visitors management websites have been understaffed, forcing many controllers to work 10-hour days, six days every week.

“Rising the work pressure continues to be a prime precedence, and over the previous two years we’ve pulled out the entire stops to speed up hiring,” Mr. Whitaker mentioned on Friday, including, “Getting extra certified people into our air site visitors services will assist alleviate the calls for on the present work pressure.”

A collection of Instances articles final yr confirmed how the nation’s aviation security system was under mounting stress. Whereas the final deadly crash involving a serious U.S. airline was greater than a decade in the past, probably harmful shut calls had been occurring, on common, a number of instances every week final yr, and a few air site visitors controllers mentioned they feared {that a} lethal crash was inevitable. The Instances discovered that errors by air site visitors controllers had been one main issue.

Simply this week, there have been at the very least two incidents that appeared to contain air site visitors controller errors at two of the nation’s main airports. On Thursday at Ronald Reagan Nationwide Airport exterior Washington, a Southwest Airways flight was instructed to cross the identical runway {that a} JetBlue Airways aircraft, Flight 1554, was cleared by a controller to take off from.

Because the JetBlue aircraft accelerated, one other controller yelled: “JetBlue 1554, cease! JetBlue 1554, cease!” The aircraft abruptly aborted its takeoff, however it got here inside as little as 312 toes of the Southwest aircraft, in accordance with preliminary F.A.A. security stories and recordings reviewed by The Instances, placing it moments away from a possible crash. The controller who cleared the Southwest aircraft to cross the runway did so with out prior coordination with the opposite controller.

The controller who cleared the JetBlue aircraft to take off was in coaching, in accordance with one of many stories, and the controller who cleared the Southwest aircraft to cross the identical runway had been working for greater than two hours straight, longer than the F.A.A. recommends.

A system designed to alert controllers to potential collisions on runways, generally known as ASDE-X, seems to not have triggered an alert, in accordance with stories on the incident.

The opposite incident, which has not been beforehand reported, occurred on Wednesday at Kennedy Worldwide Airport in New York, when a Swiss Worldwide Air Traces flight was cleared to take off on the identical runway that 4 different planes have been instructed to cross. The Swiss aircraft accelerated 800 toes down the runway earlier than the pilot, citing “site visitors on the runway,” aborted its takeoff to keep away from a possible collision, in accordance with preliminary F.A.A. security stories and a recording.

The controller who cleared the Swiss flight had instructed the opposite controller to have the 4 planes cross after the Swiss flight, however the controller instructed the planes to cross forward of the Swiss flight as a substitute.

The F.A.A. mentioned it might examine the incidents. The Nationwide Transportation Security Board mentioned it had opened an investigation into the episode at Kennedy and was gathering data relating to the one at Reagan Nationwide.

Within the report launched by the F.A.A. on Friday, the skilled panel recognized 58 “alternatives” for efforts to handle the dangers posed by fatigue, together with arising with a plan to eradicate a standard rotating schedule generally known as the rattler.

Underneath the rattler schedule, a controller would possibly begin his first shift of the week within the afternoon, with subsequent shifts starting progressively earlier. The week would then culminate with a 24-hour interval through which the controller labored each an early morning shift and, as few as eight hours later, in a single day responsibility. Many controllers instructed The Instances that, coupled with necessary additional time, the schedule was exceptionally grueling.

In a press release, the Nationwide Air Visitors Controllers Affiliation, the union that represents controllers, mentioned it was inspired that the F.A.A. was being attentive to fatigue however was involved that the adjustments the company introduced would constrain the controller work pressure and have an effect on air journey.

“F.A.A. has not modeled these adjustments to find out what unintended penalties they could should the already strained air site visitors management staffing protection,” the union mentioned, including that it was fearful that making use of the brand new guidelines instantly “could result in protection holes in air site visitors services’ schedules.”

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